The goal of this change is to increase the types of viable empires that can exist in the game. Currently, as in most 4X games, racing to gain the highest technology is the optimum way to play. A large empire with the Law & Order doctrine can usually dominate all others.
This change adds disadvantages to high-technology that can only be compensated by having the Science & Technology doctrine. Thus empires must choose between becoming large (via Law & Order) or technologically advanced (via Science & Technology).
Large empires risk rebellion secession; the Law & Order doctrine reduces that risk (by a factor of 10) allows such empires to grow. Analogously, the risk of technological disasters increase the more high-tech worlds and empire has. The Science & Technology doctrine reduces that risk, allowing empires to safely lift all their worlds to high technology.
S&T Capitals and Sector Capital
Capitals and sector capitals act as foundations. [Though perhaps they have some extra structures.]
We need to balance the game such that a Science & Technology empire with the maximum number of worlds can produce a military as strong as a Law & Order empire. We may need to adjust combat values of high-tech units.