In my case, I was on a Korolov escort mission. I docked at a station near the destination station and when I undocked, I was attacked by 2 or 3 friendlies, who pursued me a considerable distance (probably over 100 ls), but eventually gave up. I'm fairly sure I hadn't even fired a weapon in the vicinity and I had no escorts. When I returned to the area later, no one was angry and I wasn't blacklisted at any stations.
As reported by Xephyr, here:
I've run into a very odd bug a few times where every friendly in the system decides the player needs to die. Trying to reproduce this right now.